Ethiopia harari language

Ethiopia harari language

Members traditionally reside in the walled city of Hararsituated in the Harari Region of eastern Ethiopia. They speak Hararia member of the Ethiopian Semitic language group within the Afroasiatic family. The Harlaan extinct Afro-Asiatic people native to Harargheare considered the precursors to the Harari people. In the sixteenth century, walls built around the city of Harar during the reign of Emir Nur helped preserve Harari identity from being assimilated by the Oromo.

ethiopia harari language

Sixteenth century saw Oromos invading regions of Somalia from the northern areas of Hargeisa to its southern portions such as Lower Jubaincorporating the Harari people. In less than a year after its relocation Adal would collapse.

ethiopia harari language

Among the assimilated peoples were Arab Muslims that arrived during the start of the Islamic period, as well as Argobba and other migrants that were drawn to Harar's well-developed culture. Oromo migrations have effectively split this putative ethnolinguistic block to the Lake Zway islands, Gurage territory, and Harar.

Due to severe violation of Harari rights during Abyssinian rule, Hararis made several attempts to cut ties with Ethiopia and unify Hararghe with Somaliaamong them launching the nationalist Kulub movement which was linked to the Somali Youth League.

These events led to the Haile Selassie government's forced displacement efforts on Hararis, to break their control of Harar. The ruling Ethiopian government in power since has favored Hararis tremendously.

They now control their Harari Region again, and have been given special rights not offered to other groups in the region. Arsi Oromo an intermarriage took place between their ancestors and the previous inhabitants Adere Harari whom they call the Hadiya. It is closely related to the eastern Gurage languages and similar to Zay and Silt'eall of whom are linked to the Semitisized Harla language. Gafat language now extinct once spoken on the Blue Nile was related to Harari dialect.

The Harari language was historically written using the Arabic script and in characters known as "Harari secret script" of unknown origin. Harari is also commonly written in Latin outside of Ethiopia.

The Ethiopian census indicates that there were 21, Harari speakers. About 20, of these individuals were concentrated outside Harar, in Ethiopia's capital Addis Ababa. Most Harari people are bilingual in Amharic and Oromoboth of which are also Afro-Asiatic languages.

According to the Ethiopian census, about 2, are monolingual, speaking only Harari.

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Virtually all Harari are Muslim. The earliest kabir or Islamic teacher in the community was Aw Sofi Yahya, a Harari scholar who was contemporary of Patron saint of Harar called shaykh Abadir and it was from him that the first Qur'an gey Qur'anic school around 10 kilometres 6. Thousands of Hararis were forced to leave Harar in the s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

See also: Cushitic people.The languages of Ethiopia refers to the various spoken forms of communication in Ethiopia. It includes the nation's official languages, its national and regional languages, as well as its minority and foreign languages. There are 86 individual languages indigenous to Ethiopia according to Ethnologue[4] with the Ethiopian census indicating that some 77 tongues were spoken locally.

Most of these languages belong to the Afroasiatic family Semitic and Cushitic languages ; Omotic languages are also spoken, but their classification as Afroasiatic remains disputed.

Additionally, Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken by what the government calls the "Nilotic" people, though scholars distinguish Nilotic from the Surmic languagesGumuz languagesand Koman languages and spoken in Ethiopia.


Of the languages spoken in Ethiopia, 86 are living and 2 are extinct. Charles A. Ferguson proposed the Ethiopian language areacharacterized by shared grammatical and phonological features in This sprachbund includes the Afroasiatic languages of Ethiopia, not the Nilo-Saharan languages.

InMauro Tosco questioned the validity of Ferguson's original proposal. There is still no agreement among scholars on this point, but Tosco has at least weakened Ferguson's original claim. English is the most widely spoken foreign language and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools and universities.

Amharic was the language of primary school instruction but has been replaced in many areas by local languages such as Oromo and Tigrinya. After the fall of the Derg inthe Constitution of Ethiopia granted all ethnic groups the right to develop their languages and to establish first language primary education systems.

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This is a marked change to the language policies of previous governments in Ethiopia. In terms of writing systemsEthiopia's principal orthography is the Ge'ez script.


Employed as an abugida for several of the country's languages, it first came into usage in the sixth and fifth centuries BC as an abjad to transcribe the Semitic Ge'ez language. Other writing systems have also been used over the years by different Ethiopian communities. These include Arabic script for writing some Ethiopian languages spoken by Muslim populations [6] [7] and Sheikh Bakri Sapalo 's script for Oromo. According to the Ethiopian census, the largest first languages are: Oromo language speakers numbering 24, or In most regions it is the primary second language in the school curriculum.

In Ethiopia, the term " Nilotic " is often used to refer to Nilo-Saharan languages and their communities. However, in academic linguistics, "Nilotic" is only part of "Nilo-Saharan", a segment of the larger Nilo-Saharan family. A number of Ethiopian languages are endangered: they may not be spoken in one or two generations and may become extinct, victims of language deathas WeytoGafatand Mesmes have and Ongota very soon will. The factors that contribute to language death are complex, so it is not easy to estimate which or how many languages are most vulnerable.

Hudson wrote, "Assuming that a language with fewer than 10, speakers is endangered, or likely to become extinct within a generation", there are 22 endangered languages in Ethiopia However, a number of Ethiopian languages never have had populations even that high, so it is not clear that this is an appropriate way to calculate the number of endangered languages in Ethiopia.

The real number may be lower or higher. The new language policies after the revolution have strengthened the use of a number of languages. Publications specifically about endangered languages in Ethiopia include: AppleyardHaywardand Zelealem a,b, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Languages of Ethiopia Official Amharic [1] [2] Foreign English Signed several local sign languages The languages of Ethiopia refers to the various spoken forms of communication in Ethiopia. Distribution of languages of Ethiopia [3] Oromo.

Article 5 Ethiopian constitution. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 3 December Ethiopia has 83 different languages with up to different dialects spoken. The largest ethnic and linguistic groups are the Oromos, Amharas and Tigrayans. Ge'ez is the ancient language, and was introduced as an official written language during the first Aksumite kingdom when the Sabeans sought refuge in Aksum. The Aksumites developed Ge'eza unique script derived from the Sabean alphabet, and it is still used by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church today.

Tigrigna and Amharigna Amharic are the modern languages which are derived from Ge'ez. Amharic is the official national language of Ethiopia. English, Arabic, Italian and French are widely spoken by many Ethiopians. The Ethiopian languages are divided into four major language groups.

The Semitic languages are spoken in northern, central and eastern Ethiopia mainly in Tigray, Amhara, Harar and northern part of the Southern Peoples' State regions. They use the Ge'ez script that is unique to the country, which consists of 33 letters, each of which denotes 7 characters, making a total of characters. The Cushitic languages are mostly spoken in central, southern and eastern Ethiopia mainly in Afar, Oromia and Somali regions.

The Cushitic languages use the Roman alphabet and Ge'ez script. For example, Oromo is written in the Ge'ez script whereas Somali is written in the Roman alphabet. The Nilo-Saharan languages are largely spoken in the western part of the country along the border with Sudan mainly in Gambella and Benshangul regions. All rights reserved. Copying information and images from this website to another website or Intranet is prohibited.

For more details, please see Terms of Use. Language Ethiopia has 83 different languages with up to different dialects spoken. Semitic The Semitic languages are spoken in northern, central and eastern Ethiopia mainly in Tigray, Amhara, Harar and northern part of the Southern Peoples' State regions. Tauris and Co. Many thanks to Binyam Kebede for his permission to copy and use these pictures from his website.

Solomon Kibriye Many thanks to Mr.

What Languages Are Spoken In Ethiopia?

Solomon Kibriye for the contribution and comments he has made to this website.Ethiopia has more than 80 languages spoken within the country and they include official languages, foreign languages, and other native languages. Oromo and Amharic are the two principal languages spoken in the country.

There are about 88 different languages spoken in the country with the Ethiopian census of suggesting that there are about 77 locally spoken tongues. A huge percentage of the languages spoken in the country belong to the Afroasiatic family which comprises of Cushitic and Semitic languages. Even though their classification is uncertain, Omotic languages are also spoken. Besides, the Nilotic peoples who are a minority ethnic group in Ethiopia speak Nilo-Saharan languages.

Of the 88 languages in the country, two are extinct while 86 are still living. Of the remaining 86 languages, five are almost extinct, eight are in danger of extinction, 14 are developing, 18 are vigorous, and 41 are institutional. In Ethiopia, English which is the medium of instruction in universities and secondary schools is the most widely spoken of the foreign languages.

Initially, Amharic was the medium of instructions in primary schools, but that changed in many regions within the country and has so far been replaced by other local languages such as Tigrinya and Oromo. According to the Ethiopian census ofthe first languages and the largest are the Oromo with about 24, of the population speaking the language which is equivalent to Other widely spoken languages in Ethiopia include Somali with 4, of the total population which is equivalent to 6.

Amharic is the second most spoken language in Ethiopia, and it is the official language in which all federal laws are published. Languages, such as Mesmes, Gafat, and Weyto are victims of language death. Many of the languages have not been spoken in two generations making them prone to extinction.

The Ongota language is the next in line at the brink of extinction. Language death is attributed to complex factors which are not as easy to determine or predict. Therefore, it is almost impossible to pinpoint which language exactly is most prone to go extinct. With the assumption that a language in Ethiopia with less than 10, speakers is most likely to become extinct or endangered, about 22 languages are on the list as endangered.

However, the exact number of languages either facing extinction or endangered may be low or high. He is a frequent World Atlas contributor. All rights reserved.There is a shameful silence over the ongoing systematic removal of Hararis from Harar. Unchecked, this will end in the complete removal of Hararis from Harar—politically and physically. Hararis are a unique ethnic minority group in Ethiopia, who have now also become a minority in their indigenous home, the ancient city of Harar.

While Hararis used to inhabit a much larger area in the past, they have been relegated to behind the walls of Harar Jugol and its environs since after the Jugol was erected in the mid s. Today, virtual silence. While there is no war, a serious crisis is taking place. Ethiopia recently gained the unfortunate distinction of having the largest number of people internally displaced by conflict, almost 2.

As Ethiopia grapples with the challenges of political change and reform, Harar faces its own challenges. InHarar experienced a litany of abuses: Municipal services such as water and garbage removal were disrupted and cut off for weeks and their return was extorted for great sums of money; ethnically motivated mobs marched the streets of Harar chanting racist and incendiary slogans; historical mosques have been occupied and their religious leaders chased out; several Harari properties and lands have been illegally looted and stolen.

And, when the government does respond, they do so at the speed of molasses. One notable illegal seizure of property and land is that of the Aw Abdal Institute, a school with historical significance to Hararis. Its compound and surrounding area is occupied; the surrounding trees have been illegally uprooted and around 50 houses and shops are in the process of being built unlawfully.

Finally fed up, the Aw Abdal board members and the community at large decided to have a meeting at the Amir Abdullahi Conference Centre in September of Moments before the meeting, local police arrived and forcibly cancelled it without any explanation.

To this day, there has been no resolution on the issue. While Hararis wait for the government of Ethiopia to address their grievances, those borne out of inter-ethnic strife, a new crisis befell Harar in Januaryone that is religious in nature. It has now been widely reported that, amid the Orthodox Christian Celebration of Timket in Harar, Amhara celebrants and Oromo residents fought over the draping of the former Ethiopian imperial flag—a controversial symbol amongst Ethiopians.

Amhara and Oromo have had numerous clashes over this same flag. This time, however, some used this incident as a rallying cry, claiming Christianity was under attack. In Harar, local authorities reported, two buildings were set ablaze while another 11 had their windows smashed, two cars were set on fire, and several properties were damaged; several of the properties and buildings belonged to Hararis.

The loss of two lives was also reported. One of the lives lost, of the two, was a Harari man, Riad Hassan. After having lunch with his parents, for the last time, Hassan left taking his usual path, unaware of any conflict. Caught up in the confusion, Hassan was shot by police and died three days later. It was formalized in a swearing-in ceremony in October Saay Newsletter - a quartely bulletin about community activities, news, report, trivia and more.

ethiopia harari language

We are very much delighted to bring you these collections and would like to thank our Harari artists for keeping us entertained and for playing thier part in maintaing the beautiful, vibrant Harari culture. We have a collection of Harari YouTube videos.

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The aim is to have a central Harari video page where all Hararies could come and select the video of thier choice. Please feel free to contact us in improving the page. Your comments and suggestions are highly appreciated. Italians do love their coffee. According to the Italian Coffee Committee, a trade group, there are more than coff A man carrying a machete approached a number of worshippers on their way to the side entrance of Holland Park Mosque An Ethiopian Airforce Sukhoi SU27 fighter plane yesterday crashed immediately after takeoff from the Debrezeit air fo Considered as the fourth holiest Muslim city in the world, Harar is the center of Islam in Ethiopia.

DW reporter Mari We'd love to hear your feedback so we can improve our service to you. Australian Saay Harari Association is a non profit, ethnically based, social organization based in Melbourne, Australia. Harari Video Collection.

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Watch Harari weeding video. Harar News. World News.

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Attacks at Australian Mosques Continue A man carrying a machete approached a number of worshippers on their way to the side entrance of Holland Park Mosque Major Sebri Tofik has died in the air force plane crash An Ethiopian Airforce Sukhoi SU27 fighter plane yesterday crashed immediately after takeoff from the Debrezeit air fo Ethiopian News. Harar Jugol, the ancient town of the East Considered as the fourth holiest Muslim city in the world, Harar is the center of Islam in Ethiopia.

Contact Us. About Us. International Posts. Useful Links. Our Contacts.Home News Alphabets Phrases Search. Harari is a South Semitic language spoken by about 25, people in the Harari region in south eastern Ethiopia, particularly in the city of Harari.

Harari was originally written with a version of the Arabic script, then the Ethopic script was adopted to write the language. Harari speakers in Australia write their language with the Latin alphabet. Back in Harari Language School was established to teach our children the Harari language. To simplify the process of teaching we adopted the Latin script and have successfully developed it for the need of the Harari language.

Harar without Hararis

Inwhen the Harari Regional Government adopted the Sabean Ethiopic script, we tried to use it here for our students. However our students found Sabean script very hard to learn.

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So by clicking on these links you can help to support this site. Home News Alphabets What is writing? Which language? P and v are only used in other loanwords and names, mainly from English. Translation Back in Harari Language School was established to teach our children the Harari language.